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Etching of glass formula

What is the glass etching formula and quantity? - Quor

The answer by Mr. Kreider is one way of etching glass. There is an acid etching process that is used for hobby or crafts etching. It uses a pre-prepared acid - hexafluorosilicic acid - which is sold as a cream-like paste for easier application t.. Hi Eric, I know how to make glass etching cream which etches glasses in 30 seconds only. The etch is comparable to Armour Etch. My problem is how to market it and make some money to pay all my debts. My product's name us DEVOUR ETCH FA. Please google etch glasses in 30 seconds youtube for demo and comment on it if you may. Thank you.

i want to know tht how i make etching solution with the water wht material i used for it. i want to knw were i get the good quality etching for the flat glass (the sheet tht is 8*4) Milly's reply: I wouldn't recommend making etching paste, it's too dangerous. You can buy ready-made glass etching cream called 'Armour Etch'(see link above) Step 3: Clean the Glass. If there is any sticky residue (from a price tag), use Goo Gone. Follow that with a glass cleaner and always end with isopropyl alcohol. Do not touch the etching area once it is cleaned. The oils from a fingerprint can create an uneven etch. Ask Question Buy the selected items together. This item:Math Geek Formulas Etched Pint Glass Clear Glass Standard One Size $20.90. In Stock. Ships from and sold by Animalworld. CafePress Unit Circle Funny Math Geek Pint Glass, 16 oz. Drinking Glass $19.99. In stock. Ships from and sold by CafePress. CafePress What Part Of For extra protection, add tape around the edges if you want to ensure that you don't get etching cream on the glass. Remember, anything the cream touches on the glass will be etched. Next, apply a thick coating of etching cream over the stencil and allow to sit for 15 minutes. After 15 minutes, carefully rinse away the cream, remove the. Professional 30-Second Glass Etching Cream. Now you can Etch Glass in 30 Seconds just like we do here in our Plant. For the First time we are offering our Special Professional Formula Cream that is Far Stronger and Much Faster than any Craft Store Glass Etching Cream and it will Save You Both Time and Money. if your time is worth anything, it lets You make the Same Etches in 30 Seconds that.

The hydrofluoric acid etching method is sometimes referred in the same way as etching cream, but they're actually different processes and contain completely different chemicals. The acid cream is most common today with crafts & hobby projects and is less potent than the strong hydrofluoric acid used by glass manufacturers Etching glass is easy, and makes for a fun project, or a great gift! Etching Cream:https://amzn.to/2QOykRiBecome a patron to get this image and 200+ more: ht.. Clean the glass with rubbing alcohol. While glass cleaners such as Windex can be used, these may leave a residue that causes uneven etching. Isopropyl rubbing alcohol will remove all debris and fingerprints. Grip the glass in a place that won't be etched and use a fresh, soft cloth to spread the cleaner and dry the glass Thus the equation reads, SiO2 + 6 HF --> H2SiF6 + 2 H2O This equation tells us that one molecule of silica plus six molecules of hydrofluoric acid, produces one molecule of hydrofluosilicic acid plus 2 molecules of water This does not 'etch' the glass, it causes fluoridation which looks like etching. What is the chemical name and formula of water glass? Chemical name- sodium silicate formula-Na2SiO

What's Etching Cream Made of? Listed Ingredient

Step 1 - Choosing and Cleaning Your Glass. You can choose to etch any kind of glass, like a table, window, or cup. Once you've chosen your glass surface, clean it with a glass cleaner and lint-free cloth to get rid of any dust or debris. Step 2 - Sketching a Design. Next, sketch out the design you want on your glass on a piece of paper Etching is used in microfabrication to chemically remove layers from the surface of a wafer during manufacturing. Etching is a critically important process module, and every wafer undergoes many etching steps before it is complete. For many etch steps, part of the wafer is protected from the etchant by a masking material which resists etching etching of GaAs, where perfectly vertical features can form, and chlorine etching of undoped crystalline silicon, which tends to expose the slow etching { 111) crystal planes (ref. 2). The etching of silicon by free fluorine atoms is a good example of an isotropic chemical mechanism

Partial Steps in Etching: Oxidation, Dissolution, Diff usion and Convection Oxidation The fi rst reaction step in wet-chemical etching is the oxidation of the medium to be etched. This can be done either by complex formation or by oxidising components in the etching mixture, for which hydrogen peroxide or nitric acid are often used. Dissolutio KSvalue < -8) and serves as a very strong oxidising agent for the stabilisation of the ceric ammonium nitrate. Ceric ammonium nitrate itself is a very powerful oxidising agent.The sum formula for the etching of chromium with ceric ammonium nitrate and perchloric acid is 3 (NH 4)2Ce(NO 3)6 + Cr Cr(N Glass manufacturers can modify the formula of the molten glass by reducing the iron content without changing the structure of the glass. With less iron, the glass's light transparency goes from 92-93%, and light transmission increases to about 98%. Common product names for low iron glass are Starphire, Opti-white, Diamonte and Ultra white

Etching Average thickness Average thickness Average thickness Calculated Etch time Solution before etching after etching loss etch rate Minutes 883.6µ 717.8µ 166.1µ 16.61µ/min 5% HF (34.79 mils) (28.26 mils) (6.54 mils) (0.654 mils/min) 10 5% HF + 887.7µ 671.6µ 216.2µ 21.62µ/mi 4. After etching, the sample should be rinsed in hot water, followed by an alcohol rinse, and should then be dried under hot air. (Note: an al-cohol rinse can dull/wash out a stain etch.) Sam-ples with cracks must be thoroughly dried to pre-vent bleeding. 5. If additional etching time is required, the specimen should be re-rubbed for a few second The time spent immersed in the chemical bath determines the depth of the resulting etch; this time is calculated via the formula: where E is the rate of etching (usually abbreviated to etch rate), s is the depth of the cut required, and t is the total immersion time Mix salt and water. Combine salt and water and use the mixture to remove the mineral buildup. The salt acts as a scouring powder and can cut through the stain. Apply the mixture to the area and use a clean cloth to rub the stain in a circular motion

After you've dissolved a lot of copper into the solution, and used up all the peroxide, the copper chloride does most of the etching for you: CuCl2 + Cu -> 2 CuCl. That's the end etchant. Eventually you etch so much that you convert all the CuCl2 into CuCl, which doesn't dissolve copper (and is a yucky brown color) 1 Etch rates are for thermal oxide, which etches 12 times slower than PECVD oxide in dilute HF [1] Olin makes something called 777 Etch, which contains acetic acid, ammonium fluoride, ethylene glycol, and water. It is intended for use in etching SiO2 to open up bond pads. I Frosted glass can enhance the beauty of windows, glass doors, or glass cabinets. This technique adds warmth and style to any décor. Frosted glass or opaque glass is produced by the sandblasting or acid etching of clear sheet glass. It has the effect of rendering the glass translucent by scattering of light during transmission, thus blurring. Also designed to provide decorative etched glass looks to windows, mirrors, shower doors and more. Great for stenciling, decorating your kitchen, bath or anywhere in the home. From the Manufacturer. Rust-Oleum 1903830 11-Ounce Glass Spray Paint, Frosted Rust-Oleum Specialty Frosted Glass Spray adds a semi-transparent coating for decoration or.

Electrolytic Etching. A safer method of etching for the small jewellery workshop. By Dauvit Alexander _____ Abstract This paper outlines the process of electrolytic etching, a method of etching which uses an electric current - NOT acids or caustic chemicals - to etch metal. It can be used on precious and non-precious metals Which one of the following acids is used for etching glass? A) H 2 S O 4. B) H N O 3. C) HF. D) HCL. Correct Answer: C) HF. Part of solved Chemistry questions and answers : >> General Science >> Chemistry Transcribed Image Textfrom this Question. Question Most acids are safely stored in glass bottles because glass does not interact with most acids.O particular acid is stored in plastic bottles because it is capable of etching glass. Give the moled formula of this acid There is no safe formula for etching glass because all chemical etching solutions for glass contain floride compounds which are extremely hazardous when absorbed through the skin or eyes, or.

How to make glass etching cream

Professional 30-Second Glass Etching Cream. Now you can Etch Glass in 30 Seconds just like we do here in our Plant. For the First time we are offering our Special Professional Formula Cream that is Far Stronger and Much Faster than any Craft Store Glass Etching Cream and it will Save You Both Time and Money. if your time is worth anything, it lets You make the Same Etches in 30 Seconds that. Step-By-Step Instructions for Glass Etching . Make sure you wear latex gloves and protective clothing and eyewear when working with etching cream. Ensure the area you are working in is well-ventilated and the work surface is covered, as the etching cream is an acid and it will etch anything it comes in contact with 2.2 Titanium Etch Note: HF etches glass. Therefore, you must do HF processing in polyethylene or polymethylpentene containers only. 2.2.1 Before starting the etch, prepare the two rinse containers (PMP screw cap jars or polyethylene beakers) by filling them with DI water. 2.2.2 Transfer the sample to be etched into the etching solution A glass etching compound defines and highlights the cuts made on the glass surface. You can create permanent etched designs on windows, mirrors or glassware by using this cream. Once you are able to create a smooth, matte surface, you can decorate the surface by adding colors

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Chemical Etching of Glass : 12 Steps (with Pictures

  1. To etch glass with etching cream, you'll need adhesive vinyl, a piece of glass, a pencil, and etching cream. First, draw your design on the vinyl and cut it out. Then, wash the glass with rubbing alcohol, which will help your stencil stick. Then, stick your stencil onto the glass, making sure that it's smoothed out
  2. The Glass Etching Method If you have a deep scratch on your lenses, you may have to use a glass etching substance—a more powerful form of glass scratch remover. There are several different brands to choose from, but Armor Etch is one of the most popular and has consistently positive user reviews
  3. After successfully etching some glass panels I decided to move on to some bottles. I had to remove the tray and make several measurements to try and get the desired focus height (it didn't work) The bottles I had where too large to fit under the head and in the focus range of the laser but it worked anyway. I measured my tray depth to be 1.
  4. Glass manufacturers can modify the formula of the molten glass by reducing the iron content without changing the structure of the glass. With less iron, the glass's light transparency goes from 92-93%, and light transmission increases to about 98%. Common product names for low iron glass are Starphire, Opti-white, Diamonte and Ultra white
  5. Glass and Mirror cleaner was the first thing I replaced when I was expecting my son. I think it's a good place to start since it doesn't require essential oils or liquid soap one may find expensive or unavailable at first. Also, this cleaner doesn't require a glass bottle that can be scary in the beginning especially if you have little ones
  6. similar Borofloat glass) are used in anodic bonding to silicon due to the high content of mobile sodium ions and to the good match of thermal expansion rates. The large amounts of non-silicon-dioxide impurities give it noticeably different etching characteristics, etching slower in 5:1 BHF, but faster in silicon isotropic etchant

1. V. A. Dubrovskii and O. V. Guzhavin, Steklo i Keramika, No. 12 (1960); V. A. Ryabov and I. M. Krasovskaya, Glass (GIS bulletin), No.2 (1961); Proctor, Physics and. The sum formula for the etching of chromium with ceric ammonium nitrate and perchloric acid is 3 (NH 4) 2 Ce(NO 3) 6 + Cr Cr(NO 3) 3 + 3(NH 4) 2 Ce(NO 3) 5 according to which the cerium is reduced from the oxidation stage IV to III and the chromium is oxidised to oxidation stage III. The chromium nitrate, which during the etching process forms. Cancel. Andrea on Dec 10, 2013. Jann, I have used Armour Etch (found at Michael's) on clear glass with great success, but you have to leave it on for at least 20 minutes not 5 per the directions. I use vinyl as a stencil cut w/ my Cricut. I'm not aware of a homemade version, it 'll be interesting to see if someone else posts one

Amazon.com: Math Geek Formulas Etched Pint Glass Clear ..

How to Etch Glass ⋆ Real Housemom

  1. In both cases the reaction is hydroxide ions + glass gives silicate ions. The K and Na don't enter into the reaction. One possible reason is that a 10% solution of NaOH has more OH in it than a 10% solution of KOH because the K weighs more than the Na. If both the solutions were the same molarity then I'd expect very similar reaction rates
  2. Electro etching will speed up the etching process, and/or allow more dilute etching solutions. It also tends to reduce undercutting of the etch, and can thus allow deeper etching. To electro-etch, you attach the piece to be etched to the positive side of a small power supply (anode) and the negative side to a piece of stainless steel
  3. Step 3 - Cleaning the Glass. Using a soft clean cloth, rub the paste into the areas of the glass that have hard water stains. Rub the paste in a circular motion ensuring that you have covered the entire area. Don't be afraid of rubbing quite hard to start the stain removal process. Leave the paste to work for at least a couple of hours
  4. Acid etching is the process of applying hydrochloric/muriatic or buffered phosphoric acid to a slab, then rinsing it off with water. For many years, it was a standard method of concrete preparation used by nearly all industrial, commercial and institutional floor coating installers, depending on the floor size and system to be installed
  5. Impress your customers with industry leading quality and innovative glass and mirror products. Experience our stress-free process, refined over 50 years experience and over 1 billion square feet delivered. Enjoy working with a glass vendor that's committed to your success. Join our family of over 1500 customers in continuing to lead and shape.

Glass Etching Supplies - Etching Supplie

Before writing the unbalanced chemical equation for this reaction, it's important to note that this reaction is actually used to decorate glass by inducing etching patterns on it surface. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid will react with the glass, which is represented by silicon dioxide, and produce silicon tetrafluoride, a gas that will be given off. Pre-etched pattern sheet available in sterling, fine silver, gold and copper. They will do custom etching to a depth of .006 - .008″ (too shallow for champleve). Graphic Chemical & Ink Co. , 728 North Yale Ave., Villa Park, IL 60181, (630) 832-6004 or 800 465-7382. Pre-sensitized copper, etching tank, asphaltum, rosin, Z*Acryl nontoxic. To anon 25940: Every glass panel of my glassed-in off-kitchen balcony has the manufacturer's brand name and the words Tempered Glass etched in a corner of each panel. Surprisingly, here in South Korea, the info is in English only (very unusual) Safe Metal Etching: Ferric Chloride. The first was this: Ferric chloride, which is what most folks use to etch copper, isn't toxic* or super dangerous-it's a salt. Not an edible salt, of course. You shouldn't drink it, you shouldn't get it in your eyes, and if you get it on your skin, wash immediately. Use it in a well-ventilated room The soap scum and hard water stains can diminish the aesthetic beauty of the glass by etching the smooth surface of shower screens. Besides this, the porosity of glass also exaggerates the adverse effects of hard water minerals. These minerals seep into the surface of the glass shower door and often result in corrosion

Hydrofluoric Acid Etching for Glass & Metal: Engraving

Etching Glass: EASY - YouTub

Add up the materials and add $3/ £1.75 for each piece of glass. If you are painting or doing other decorative techniques (etching, staining, fusing etc) then double this to $6/£3.50 each piece of glass). Adjust accordingly. The $ / £ per piece takes into account overheads and your time Acid etching in dentistry is an effective way to bond different types of restorations to enamel or dentin. The smear layer of organic and inorganic material on a tooth, which results from cavity prep, makes for a less than ideal surface for bonding. Because of the need to disrupt this smear layer, acid etching began in the 1970s and 1980s Glass shower doors have plenty of pros and cons, and managing soap scum can deter homeowners from wanting them. My glass shower is the original in my 1951 home, so it is coffin-like compared to modern all-glass shower doors (swoon), and I'm not too crazy about the etched swan Silicon Nitride Etchant, Si 3 N 4 Etch, GaN Etch, Aluminum Oxide Etchant, Al 2 O 3 Etch, Gallium Nitride Etchan Hydrogen fluoride is also used for etching glass and metal. How you could be exposed to hydrogen fluoride. In a natural disaster, you could be exposed to high levels of hydrogen fluoride when storage facilities or containers are damaged and the chemical is released. This release could occur at an industrial site or even a retail location

Chemical Information Overview. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) differs from other acids because the fluoride ion readily penetrates the skin, causing destruction of deep tissue layers, including bone. Pain associated with exposure to solutions of HF (1-50%) may be delayed for 1-24 hours. If HF is not rapidly neutralized and the fluoride ion bound. By Bob Vila. Photo: amazon.com. It wasn't so long ago that trisodium phosphate (TSP) was a go-to choice for tough cleaning jobs, especially on exteriors. Diluted in water and applied often with. Etching and resist removal solutions recently developed by Friedhard Kiekeben have greatly improved the process and final product, as well as safety, cost and simplicity. supply is hard, soften the water by boiling before using it. When to temperature of hot tap water, proceed with the formula. Glass on Metal is the only publication.

Young's Modulus or Elastic Modulus or Tensile Modulus, is the measurement of mechanical properties of linear elastic solids like rods, wires, etc. In this article, we will discuss its concept and Young's Modulus Formula with examples. Let us learn the interesting concept *NOTICE: Shipments may be delayed once in the mail due to COVID-19. I apologize for any inconvenience.* Perfect for the motorsport enthusiast who enjoys attending or watching races at some of the worlds finest racetracks, this set of pint beer glasses features up to four different track layouts

Furthermore, can I use muriatic acid to clean glass? Typically, products containing muriatic acid or phosphoric acid are best for removing hard water stains from glass.However, while the acids in oven cleaner will remove the stains, they can also dissolve the paint or glazing around a window—which is probably something you want to avoid.. One may also ask, will muriatic acid eat plastic When using alcohol ink on glass, make sure to use a clear sealer such as resin or the Ranger's Gloss Multi-Medium so the colors do not fade or wipe off. Use 2-3 thin coats of the sealer to make sure your project is coated, but make sure the layers are thin so that the sealer does not drip or run solution, the etching mechanism is generally isotropic, that is, the lateral and vertical etch rates are the same (Figure 6.3b). However, in pattern transfer operations, a resist pattern is defined by a lithographic process (Figure 6.3a), and anisotropic etching is needed to yield steep vertical walls (Figure 6.3c). If h f i Any one of the above three steps can be the etch rate limiting step 2 important Wet Etch Concepts: A.) Buffering the solution to maintain constant etch rate with time: Consider etching of SiO 2 SiO 2 6HF H 2 SiF 6 2H 2 O But as the HF is depleted (used up) from the solution the etch rate would change. Thus

How to Etch Glass with Etching Cream: 12 Steps (with Pictures

  1. The process of etching the surface of glass with hydrofluoric acid. Acid-etched decoration is produced by covering the glass with an acid-resistant substance such as wax, through which the design is scratched. The object is then immersed in hydrofluoric acid, or a mixture of dilute hydrofluoric acid and potassium fluoride is applied to etch the.
  2. 8. A wet etch using KOH (potassium hydroxide) is to the silicon substrate as a. sandblasting is to patterned glass. b. sandpaper is to the surface of wood. c. flowing water is to the mud of a river bank. d. moisture and heat are to exposed iron. 9. Surface etch processes are normally NOT used to etch which of the following? a. Silicon nitride.
  3. Nov. 14, 2005 6.152J/3.155J 3 Wet etch (Chemical: wet, vapor or in plasma) isotropic (usually), highly selectiveUsed less for VLSI (poor feature size control) Combination (Physical & Chemical) Ion-enhanced or Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) combines best of directionality and selectivity Dry etch (Physical: ions, momentum transfer) anisotropic, not selectiv
  4. Satin Pro is an acid etching paste for glass sheets, mirrors, marble and slate, designed for the professional and industrial use.This is the best product in the Satin System to screen print signs, drawings and total prints on sheets of every size

What Type of Acid Is Used to Etch Glass? Our Pastime

  1. s. Skill Level: Beginner. Estimated Cost: $10 to $15. A lot of things will work as a homemade glass cleaner, from rubbing alcohol to vinegar to soapy water, but single ingredients alone tend to have their own drawbacks. For example, vinegar does a decent job removing dust and water spots, but it doesn't cut through a.
  2. etch for penetrant inspection per nasa/jsc prc-5010. All new pickling, etching and descaling processes shall be qualified for the alloy being processed. Once a process is qualified, the qualification testing does not have to be repeated for that alloy if no essential process variables have changed and no processing problems are discovered
  3. If you have softened water, use less detergent than the recommended amount and remove glasses immediately after the wash cycle to avoid the high heat of drying, which can accelerate the etching.
  4. Glass stains that refuse to go away even with tough household cleaners require muriatic acid to split the stain from the glass. If you learn how to use muriatic acid, you might save yourself plenty of trouble and actually manage to get rid of the stubborn parts of the stains that just keep sticking onto the window
Dioctyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride Chemical Compound built

Chemical formula for glass etching cream? - Answer

Put KOH solution in glass container and warm to 80 deg C on a hot plate. If desired, use a mixer to agitate the solution. Place patterned wafer (with patterned hard mask) in the KOH solution. The KOH will bubble at the exposed silicon sites while etching occurs. The etch rate for 30% KOH at 80 deg C should be about 1 micron/minute. Clean u Spray your shower doors with a fair coat of WD-40, covering all areas with the formula. Leave it for about a quarter an hour. Wipe the door with a clean cloth (preferably a microfiber towel). Scrub gently if there are any stuck-on water marks in need of loosening. Apply another coating of WD-40 and wipe it once more As with all wet-chemical etching solutions, the dissolution rate is a strong function of temperature. Significantly faster etch rates at higher temperatures are typical, but less ideal etch behavior is also common with more aggressive etch rates. Also, heavy boron doping can significantly harden the silicon and sharply reduce the etch rate • Keep containers closed to minimize exposure and prevent etching of fume hood glass from HF vapors. 5) Transporting HF If an HF containing solution must be transported from one lab area to another: • Place the object in a clean, chemically compatible container and close the lid

Add 1 quart of white vinegar to the water. The mixture should be approximately 1 part vinegar to 3 parts water. If you only have a glass or two to clean, then you may use 1 cup vinegar to 3 cups. Mix the solution in the flow hood with the sash between you and the solution. Wear the full protection. When preparing the piranha solution, always add the peroxide to the acid. The H2O2 is added immediately before the etching process because it immediately produces an exothermic reaction with gas (pressure) release

How to Use Glass Etching Cream DoItYourself

  1. Reactive ion etchingReactive ion etching ¾Reactive ion etching is an anisotropic processReactive ion etching is an anisotropic process! ¾Has better selectivity and much higher etch rate! Effect of Ions: 33 [J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3189 (1979)] Breaks bonds, raises temperature locally on the surface and provides activation energ
  2. e solution is highest among the etching solutions studied in the present experiment. If an external bias voltage was applied during etching, the etching rate was increased. The effects of temperature, solubility of the etchant, and ultrasonic vibration on etching rate are also discussed
  3. Depression glass brought a little cheer into the dreary times of the late 1920s through the early 1940s. Mass-produced by manufacturers such as Federal Glass, MacBeth-Evans, and Hocking Glass, this molded glassware came in beautiful colors and patterns to suit every taste. However, it was of relatively low quality, with pieces often exhibiting.
  4. Solar heat gain coefficient. Is the sum of the solar direct transmittance and the secondary heat transfer factor of the glazing towards the inside, the latter resulting from heat transfer by convection and longwave IR-radiation of that part of the incident solar radiation which has been absorbed by the glazing
  5. New Formula F1 Racer Ayrton Senna Signed 3D Laser Engraving Etched Crystal Glass. Ayrton Senna Signed signature. Item type: Ayrton Senna Signed 3D Laser Etched Crystal Glass. Ayrton Senna Signed 3D Laser Etched Crystal Glass Souvenir Gift
  6. Vase, Sous l'Eau du songe (Under the Water of the Dream), cased, acid-etched, and wheel-cut glass by Émile Gallé, from Cristallerie de Gallé, Nancy, France, c. 1890-95; in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Photograph by Joel Parham. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, gift of Varya and Hans Cohn, M.82.124.5

Etching (microfabrication) - Wikipedi

Cocaine Chemical Structure built with indigoinstrumentsPotassium hydroxide anhydrous, ≥99Gantungan kunci karet, Frosted, Fiberglass, Digital鋼彈

Miracle Sealants 4 oz. Water Ring and Etch Remover makes it easy to maintain and restore the shine on natural stone floors, tables, vanities and walls. Non oxalic acid formula provides a fast, effective polish and works on interior or exterior stone surfaces. Easy to use powder for polishing marble, travertine, terrazzo, limestone and more Etching your own circuit boards is tons of fun, but etching requires strong chemicals to dissolve the copper plating on blank circuit boards. The normal ferric chloride solution works well, but can be expensive and leaves permanent stains. Luckily, we can whip up our own etchant at home with everyday chemicals! Better yet, our new etchant will turn an eerie green color rather than the dull. Chemical etching is a machining process which uses acids and other chemicals to dissolve unwanted material, usually metal, to produce precision components. The range of metals possible is vast, from yellow metals such as brass, copper, beryllium copper, etc. to ferrous metals including stainless steel, carbon steel and mild steel, up to a.